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Trouble Shooter offers to its valued customers, this precious service. If you have any queries about any thing related to the Satellite World, you can send your queries to :
April 2003

Q.1 : Dear Editor, It is since long I am writing to you but have been ignored all the time kindly add my words this time and tell me if there is any temperature rating specified for a Headend? (Naeem by E-mail).

Ans: There is no "Standard" on the temperature or max temperature permitted at a Head end.However, a general rule applies to ALL electronic components. An increase in operating temperature by 10 deg C, reduces the MTBF (Mean Time Before Failure) by 50% ! Hence, it is desirable to keep operating temperature low.

Q.2 : I am a reader of your magazine. I need some information regarding TV channels PTV1 & TMG Enter. I have tried to receive the channels on the Thaicom 3 satellite at 78.5 deg. East but have not got them. Please guide me as to what should I do to receive these channels? (Muqtaddir Mudassar, Bhawal Pur).

Ans: The TMG channel is very much on the Thaicom satellite at a downlink frequency of 3459 MHz with vertical polarisation, in a digital mode.Similarly PTV is available on a downlink frequency of 3610 MHz with vertical polarity. Tune in with the correct parameters you will get them.

Q.3 : On my 8 feet dish I have tried to receive MAA TV, freq. 3525, SR 24800 but have not been able to get any signal on INSAT 2E. I am able to get all channels like ETV, Aaj Tak, Asianet, etc. Why am I not able to get this signal ? I tried the website of MAA TV, which indicates the same reception details. Please reply. (Dr. Rizwan Akram by E-mail)

Ans: The MAA TV channel on Insat 2E is a digital encrypted channel, requiring the use of a decoder supplied by the channel in order to receive it.

Q.4 : How can we improve the S/N ratio ? What is its minimum value? Please give me the details. (Mark Angel, Dubai)

Ans: The S/N (Signal to Noise Ratio) is a property of the baseband Video & Audio signals. The S/N ratio is dependent on the signal source & e.g. the Video Camera. It cannot be improved, in fact it can only get worse ! During transmission, the Carrier to Noise ratio C/N is typically what is addressed during CATV transmission. Noise at the Head end can be minimised by using a Large Dish Antenna, with a Low noise LNB & Satellite Receiver, as well as good quality modulators.

Q.5 : Respected Trouble Shooter, kindly explain if it is true that receivers utilizing the hybrid circuit type are superior. (Luqman Cables by E-mail)

Ans: All fiber optic nodes accept the optical signal and pass it on to a receiver module, which converts the optical (light) signal to an electrical signal. This conversion is done using a PIN photo-diode. The output of the photo-diode is extremely small and needs to be significantly amplified with the minimum possible addition of noise and distortion.At the heart of each fiber optic node lies a PIN photo-diode. This PIN photo-diode may be encapsulated in a "bare bones" 3 pin housing. The signal from this 3 PIN housing then needs to be amplified and buffered into a 75 ohm output RF signal, which is then further amplified.The quality of the optical to RF conversion will depend on two factors viz: 1. The quality of the PIN diode used 2. The quality of the electronics used to process the output signal from the photo-diode.Some years ago, optical nodes from even internationally leading manufacturers such as GI / Motorola used Ortel / Angre PIN photo-diodes. The output of the photo-diode was processed using external, discrete components. This solution also yielded high performance optical nodesMore recently, Philips offer a hybrid module that consists of a pin photo-diode and associated electronics, encapsulated into a single unit. These units provide a good standard of performance, at minimum cost and hassle for the fiber optic node manufacturer. As a result, these fiber optic hybrid modules have gained wide spread use.Infact, Chinese component manufacturers have also started assembling and offering similar, fiber optic modules. Their quality and performance may not necessarily match that of the modules from Philips. To answer your questions, a 3 legged PIN module may not Necessarily offer inferior performance if high quality PIN photo-diodes are used with well designed electronics. However, your safest bet would be to check for a Philips hybrid fiber optic module inside the optical node.This will almost certainly assure you good quality performance.

Q.6 : Dear sir, this is for the first time I am mailing to the 'Dish Channels' kindly tell me about disconnection of DD National & Metro channel on PAS 10 if any parametric change has taken plan please let me know? (Dewaan by E-mail)

Ans: The Doordarshan channels will not be available from the PAS 10 satelllite for the duration of the cricket world cup due to copyright restrictions.We are informed by authorities at Doordarshan that the channel will be back on the satellite soon whereas in the menatime they continue to be availbale from the INSAT satellites.

Q.7 : We are having a problem receiving the MCM channel. Do you have any information regarding changes in the frequency of MCM. If so please send us the details regarding the changes in frequency and satellite of MCM. (Gul Khan via e-mail)

Ans: The MCM channel has gone off the IntelSat. To the best of our knowledge, it is no longer available for viewers in the Indian ocean region. There are no pointers as to when it will recommence, if at all.

Q.8 : We are using 4 transmitters at the headend (each 12 dbm) in our network. The RF input is approximately 85 db. We have two transmitter inputs as combiner outputs and the another two are headend amplifier outputs (as they did do not fulfill the minimum RF input signal requirements ). Will it create any more noise in the transmitters compared to combiner output taken directly? (Rohail Via E-mail)

Ans: Theoritically, the RF feed without an Amplifier to boost the signals will have lower noise content and distortion. However, in practice, if the input to the Headend Amplifer is Higher than 70 dBu and the output for the Channel with the highest level is maintained below 100 dbu there should be no practical deterioration of the signal.

Q.9 : Dear Editor, Some Optical Nodes have Double ICs in the Amplification section, while some have a single IC. Kindly tell me which is Best & how they Function? I have searched your previous articles, but have not found an answer. (Kashif, Lahore)

Ans: Fibre optic node is essentially similar to a CATV Amplifier, with its 1st stage being a Photo PIN diode or Hybrid module, which accepts an Optical signal & yields an RF signal. The RF Signal is amplified by the RF Amplifier section in the node. Much like the CATV amplifier, the RF amplification can be done by a single stage, or in multiple stages (usually 2 stages) for better results.

Q.10 : We have not been able to receive the TV5 Asie on the Intelsat satellite @ 66 deg E including MCM since last couple of days. Your in Feb. magazine said only E TV has left. Do you know any details? (Dawer by E-mail)

Ans: Dear reader you have not mentioned your location hence we can't give any solution to your problem about TV5 Asie. Any how the MCM Channel has been discontinued on the Intelsat.

Q.11 : Is it possible to stop or divert or disturb the laser signal while traveling in OFC cable without any cable damage ? (using some external equipment the way RF signals can be picked up from nearby Co-Axial cables). (Khalid by e-mail)

Ans: It is extremely difficult to "Bleed Off" CATV signals from an Optical Fibre. Unlike RF Co-axial cable there is no radiated signal that can be picked up just outside the conductor.Theoretically, it is possible to tap off a signal from a single mode optical fibre by placing an Optical wedge, pressed firmly against the fibre. This might be possible in a Laboratrory but in the field it is unlikely to be implemented successfully.


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